The Selma to Montgomery marches, also known as Bloody Sunday and the two marches that followed, were marches and protests held in 1965, that marked the political and emotional peak of the American civil rights movement. On March 7, 1965, law enforcement officers beat civil rights marchers. Outrage over the violence helped create a groundswell for passage of the 1965 Voting Rights Act, an act that is still being challenged till this day.
On Monday, Interior Secretary Ken Salazar declared the The Edmund Pettus Bridge bridge in Alabama a national historic landmark.
“These national historic landmark designations span more than two centuries of our country’s history, from 17th century architecture to a Civil War battlefield to a 19th century-Kentucky whiskey distillery that continued to operate through the Prohibition era,” Secretary Salazar said. “Today’s designations include significant sites that help tell the story of America and the contributions that all people from all walks of life have made as we strive for a more perfect union.”
- Camden Amphitheatre and Public Library, Camden, Maine. The Camden Amphitheatre and Public Library is one of the few public projects of Fletcher Steele, one of America’s premier practitioners of 20th-century landscape design. It is an outstanding representation of the contributions made by the landscape architecture profession, private benefactors, and national associations to develop public landscapes in the United States that celebrated natural regional beauty, scenic character, and rich cultural history.
- Camp Nelson Historic and Archeological District, Jessamine County, Ky. One of the nation’s largest recruitment and training centers for African-American soldiers during the American Civil War, Camp Nelson is also significant as the site of a large refugee camp for the wives and children of the soldiers who were escaping slavery and seeking freedom.
- Casa Dra. Concha Meléndez Ramírez, San Juan, Puerto Rico. This was the residence and workspace of Dra. Concha Meléndez Ramírez, a prolific and prominent literary criticism voice in Generación del Treinta (Generation of 1930), a literary movement that shaped Puerto Rico’s 20th-century national cultural identity.
- The Epic of American Civilization Murals, Dartmouth College, Hanover, N.H. These murals are the most important work in the United States by muralist José Clemente Orozco, one of Mexico’s foremost mural artists of the early 20th century. Orozco conceived the murals as a representation of a North American continent characterized by the duality of indigenous and European historical experiences. Though highly controversial in their day, the murals challenged traditional ways of thinking about the development of Aztec and Anglo-American civilizations in North America.
- George T. Stagg Distillery, Franklin County, Ky. With resources dating from approximately 1880 to 1953, the George T. Stagg Distillery is a rare, intact example of an operating distillery before, during and after Prohibition. It provides an unparalleled opportunity to study at one site the evolution of buildings and technology associated with the American whiskey industry.
- Harriet Beecher Stowe House, Hartford, Conn. Though best known to modern audiences for her antislavery work, Harriet Beecher Stowe was widely recognized in her lifetime as a highly prolific and nationally significant reformer for a wide variety of causes. Her longtime home in Hartford is associated with Stowe’s later career as a reformer on issues relating to the family and women’s roles.
- Hinchliffe Stadium, Paterson, N.J. Hinchliffe Stadium is an exceptional example of a Negro League baseball stadium in 20th-century segregated America. The stadium served as home field for teams such as the New York Black Yankees and the New York Cubans during a period when the institutionalized practice of “separate but equal” facilities was the accepted norm. Eleven current members of the National Baseball Hall of Fame played at Hinchliffe Stadium.
- Honey Springs Battlefield, McIntosh and Muskogee Counties, Okla. By far the largest Civil War engagement of the 1861-1865 period of conflict within Indian Territory, the Battle of Honey Springs was the largest battle in Indian Territory in which Native Americans fought as members of both Union and Confederate armies. It is also significant as the first and largest engagement in which Indian troops of both sides fought in the formalized style of Anglo-American warfare.
- Old San Juan Historic District/Distrito Histórico del Viejo San Juan, San Juan, Puerto Rico. Old San Juan is the only existing representation of an almost 400-year-old Spanish Colonial city in the United States, and contains the largest collection of buildings representing four centuries of Spanish culture, religion, politics, and architecture. It is the oldest city within the United States and its territories, and the district includes the oldest house, Christian church, executive mansion, convent, and military defenses in the country as well.
- Pear Valley, Eastville, Va. Dating to 1740, the wood-frame house known as Pear Valley is an excellent, rare surviving example of the distinctive form of architecture that developed in the Chesapeake Bay region, illustrating how early settlers in the colonies adapted to their new environment.
- Second Presbyterian Church, Chicago, Ill. The Second Presbyterian Church represents the visual and philosophical precepts of the turn of the century Arts and Crafts design movement. Its interior, the masterwork of noted architect Howard Van Doren Shaw, presents some of the finest examples of Arts and Crafts mural painting, sculpture, stained glass and crafting in metals, fabrics, wood and plaster.
- Yaddo, Saratoga Springs, N.Y. One of the country’s oldest artists’ retreats, Yaddo has hosted more than 6,000 influential writers, visual artists and composers who shaped and imprinted American culture with a distinct national identity in the 20th century. Among the notable artists who have worked at Yaddo are Aaron Copland, Truman Capote, Leonard Bernstein, Flannery O’Connor, Sylvia Plath and Langston Hughes.